To improve the metabolic process for protein and amino acid and also breaking up of glucose to produce energy. In this respect, the placenta plays the role of a liver.
The fetus is unable to respire with the external oxygen directly. Hence it must go through the placenta to exchange the required oxygen with carbon dioxide through the mother’s blood. The function is akin to the lung of a human body.
Excretory Function for Metabolic By-products
The fetus cannot discharge the metabolic by-products by itself. The by-products are channeled to the placenta for processing and this is similar to the function of kidney for an ordinary person.
In order to maintain the normal body function during pregnancy, essential hormones must be produced and made available through secretion. During the initial period, the placenta stimulates the mother’s ovary to produce hairy glands and this enhances the secretion of female hormone. In the final stage of pregnancy, it secrets the hormone for ovulation automatically and this is akin to the function of the pituitary gland and the ovary.
The fetus does not possess any immunity against diseases. Therefore, it has to acquire the antibody from the mother’s body through placenta.
The numerous functions of placenta are beyond the scope of modern medical science. If an organ akin to placenta could be manufactured by artificial means, it will certainly become a great discovery for the world. Unfortunately modern medical science is still unable to do this but more research is being done.